The Natural Edge Project The Natural Advantage of Nations Whole System Design Factor 5 Cents and Sustainability Higher Education and Sustainable Development




"Dr Janis Birkeland has one of the most interesting and diverse academic backgrounds I have come across. She is qualified, and has practiced as, an artist, architect, lawyer, and city and regional planner. Janis is author of the book "Design for Sustainability: a Sourcebook of Integrated Eco-logical Solutions" published in 2002."
Elizabeth Heij, CSIRO Sustainability Network





The Natural Advantage of Nations (Vol. I): Business Opportunities, Innovation and Governance in the 21st Century

 
 

 

References from the Book

1. McDonough, W. and Braungart, M. (2002) Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things, North Point Press, San Francisco

 

2. Anderson, S. and Cavanagh, J. (1996) The Top 200, The Rise of Global Corporate Power, The Institute for Policy Studies, Washington, DC.

 

3. Braithwaite, J. (1980) 'Inegalitarian Consequences of Egalitarian Reforms to Control Corporate Crime', Temple Law Quarterly, vol 53, pp1127-1146; Castleman, B. (1979) 'The Export of Hazardous Factories to Developing Nations', International Journal of Health Services, vol 9, pp569-606; Castleman, B. (1981) 'More on the International Asbestos Business', International Journal of Health Services, vol 11, pp339-340; References cited in Braithwaite, J. and Drahos, P. (2000) Global Business Regulation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p267.

 

4. Leonard, J. (1988) Pollution and the Struggle for World Product, Cambridge University Press; Wheeler, D. and Mody, A. (1992) 'International Investment Location Decisions: The Case of US Firms', Journal of International Economics August, pp57-76; Jaffe, A., Adam, B., Peterson, S., Portney, P. and Stavins, R. (1995) 'Environmental Regulation and the Competitiveness of US Manufacturing: What does the Evidence Tell Us?' (password), Journal of Economic Literature, vol 33, pp132-163; References cited in Vogel, D. (1995) Trading Up: Consumer and Environmental Regulation in a Global Economy, Harvard University Press.

 

5. Porter, M. and van der Linde, C. (1995a) 'Green and Competitive: Ending the Stalemate', Harvard Business Review, September-October, pp121-134; Porter, M. and van der Linde, C. (1995b) 'Toward a New Conception of the Environment-Competitiveness Relationship', Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol IX-4, Fall, pp97-118; Schmidheiny, S. (1992) Changing Course: A Global Perspective on Development and the Environment, The MIT Press, Boston, MA; Panayotu, T. and Vincent, J. (1997) Environmental Regulation and Competitiveness, The Global Competitiveness Report 1997, World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland; Holliday, C.O., Schmidheiny. S. and Watts, P. (2002) Walking the Talk: The Business Case for Sustainable Development, World Business Council for Sustainable Development/Greenleaf Publishing, Sheffield, UK.

 

6. Porter, M. (1990) The Competitive Advantage of Nations, The Free Press, New York (reprinted in 1998), p648.

 

7. Benedick, R. (1991) Ozone Diplomacy: New Directions in Safeguarding the Planet, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p55.

 

8. Braithwaite, J. and Drahos, P. (2000) Global Business Regulation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

 

9. Porter, M. (1990) The Competitive Advantage of Nations, The Free Press, New York (reprinted in 1998) p645.

 

10. Blazejczak, J. and Lubbe, K. (1993) Environmental Protection and Industrial Location: The Influence of Environmental Location - Specific Factors on Investment Decisions, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin; Feketekuty, G. (1993) 'The Link between Trade and Environmental Policy', Minnesota Journal of Global Trade, vol 2, pp171-205; Rowlands, I. (1995) The Politics of Global Atmospheric Change, Manchester University Press, pp30-31.

 

11. Brown, L., Flavin, C. and French, H. (2000) State of the World 2000: A Worldwatch Institute Report on Progress Toward a Sustainable Society, WW Norton, New York/Earthscan, London; in addition, refer to the Green Jobs section of ACF (Australian Conservation Foundation) (2000) Natural Advantage: Blueprint for a Sustainable Australia, ACF, Melbourne.

 

12. Weale, A. (1992) The New Politics of Pollution, Manchester University Press.

 

13. Brown, R., O'Leary, H. and Browner, C. (1993) Environmental Technologies Exports: Strategic Framework for US Leadership, US Department of Commerce, Washington, DC.

 

14. Hawken, P., Lovins, A. and Lovins, L. H. (1999) Natural Capitalism: Creating the Next Industrial Revolution, Earthscan, London, Ch 6.

 

15. Lovins, A. and Lovins, L. H. (1997) Climate: Making Sense and Making Money, Rocky Mountain Institute, Colorado.

 

16. The Environmental Sustainability Index is an Initiative of the Global Leaders of Tomorrow Environment Task Force, World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2002. In collaboration with: Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy Yale University Center for International Earth Science Information Network Columbia University.

 

17. Rocky Mountain Institute, McDonough and Braungart Design Chemistry, Natural Capitalism, Inc, The Wuppertal Institute, Australian Conservation Foundation (Natural Advantage: Blueprint for A Sustainable Australia).

 

18. Porter, M. and van der Linde, C. (1995a) 'Green and Competitive: Ending the Stalemate', Harvard Business Review, September-October, pp121-134.

 

19. Button, K. and Weyman-Jones, T. (1992) 'Ownership Structure, Institutional Organization and Measured X-inefficiency', American Economic Review, May, pp439-445.

 

20. Hawken, P., Lovins, A. and Lovins, L. H. (1999) Natural Capitalism: Creating the Next Industrial Revolution, Earthscan, London.

 

21. McDonough, W. and Braungart, M. (1998) 'The Next Industrial Revolution', The Atlantic Monthly, vol 282, no 4, pp82-92.

 

22. Hawken, P., Lovins, A. and Lovins, L. H. (1999) Natural Capitalism: Creating the Next Industrial Revolution, Earthscan, London, p116.

 

23. Birkeland, J. (2002) Design for Sustainability: A Sourcebook of Integrated Eco-Logical Solutions, Earthscan, London.

 

24. See Section 2 for further explanation.

 

25. The WBCSD was created in 1992 and in 2003 comprised over 160 major international corporations from more than 30 countries. It also benefits from a global network of 35 national and regional business councils and partner organizations involving over 1000 business leaders globally.

 

26. Womack, J. and Jones, D. (1996) Lean Thinking: Banish Waste and Create Wealth in Your Corporation, Touchstone & Design, New York.

 

27. Swiss watches command top dollar around the world. The aluminium in each watch costs approximately 30 cents. Clearly, Swiss watch companies have identified and targeted being world competitive in the most profitable part of the supply chain.

 

28. It is widely recognized that it is in a nation's economic interests to add value (Value Adding) to its raw and natural resources before they are exported to command premium price for the export of these resources. Refer to the report of the MMSD Australia project, 'Facing the Future' (Sheehy, B. and Dickie, P. (2002) 'Facing the Future', Australian submission to the Report of the Mining Minerals and Sustainable Development (MMSD) Project Breaking New Ground, MMSD/Earthscan, London).

 

29. Collins, J. and Porras, J. (1994) Built to Last: Successful Habits of Visionary Companies, Century, London.

 

30. Foster, R. and Kaplan, S. (2001) Creative Destruction: Why Companies that are Built to Last Under-Perform the Market and How to Transform Them, Doubleday , New York.

 

31. Ibid.

 

32. Ibid.

 

33. Porter, M. and van der Linde, C. (1995a) 'Green and Competitive: Ending the Stalemate', Harvard Business Review, September-October, pp121-134; Porter, M. and van der Linde, C. (1995b) 'Toward a New Conception of the Environment-Competitiveness Relationship', Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol IX-4, Fall, pp97-118.

 

34. Anderson , R. (1998) Mid-Course Correction: Toward a Sustainable Enterprise: the Interface Model, Peregrinzilla Press, Atlanta, GA.

 

35. Refer to the proceedings of the 8th International Greening of Industry Network Conference, 1999.

 

36. Foss, M., Gonzales, E. and Noyen, H. (1999) 'Ford Motor Company', in Hastings, M. (ed) Corporate Incentives and Environmental Decision Making, Houston Advanced Research Center, Houston, TX, pp35-52.

 

37. Commonwealth of Australia (1997) Investing for Growth: The Howard Government's Plan for Australian Industry, Commonwealth of Australia, p28.

 

38. Gordon Moore first expressed Moore 's Law over 30 years ago. Moore, the founder of Intel, noticed that his engineers had an amazing capability to double the processing power of the chips they were designing at a regular rate. He used this insight to come up with his bold prediction. This prediction has held true for the last

30. years.

 

39. Transaction costs are the costs of undertaking transactions between purchaser and seller, supplier and distributor.

 

40. Downes, L. and Mui, C. (1998) Unleashing the Killer App: Digital Strategies for Market Dominance, Harvard Business School Press, Boston.

 

41. The first economist to study transaction costs in business was Ronald Coase. In his 1937 article 'The Nature of the Firm' Coase suggested that it was the costs of transactions which dictated the size and core business of a firm. For example, a sheet of paper may only cost a fraction of a cent, but if you were to purchase it one sheet at a time the cost of your time would far outweigh the cost of the piece of paper. By purchasing the paper in bulk, you reduce the transaction cost of obtaining the piece of paper to an acceptable level. Coase took this idea one step further. He made the case that firms actually formed in order to reduce transaction costs. For example, in order to purchase reams of paper individually the transaction costs would still be high; firms would pool everything from marketing to the stationery cabinet (where reams of paper would reside). These transaction costs would even determine when firms would decrease in size; eventually the stationery cabinet (or department) would become too costly to maintain, and would become a prime candidate for 'outsourcing'; reducing these transaction costs still further. Coase eventually won the Nobel Prize for Economics for this research.

 

42. Lovins, A., Datta, K., Feiler, T., Rábago, K., Swisher, J., Lehmann, A. and Wicker, K. (2002) Small Is Profitable: The Hidden Economic Benefits of Making Electrical Resources the Right Size, Rocky Mountain Institute Publications, Colorado.

 

43. Womack, J. and Jones, D. (1996) Lean Thinking: Banish Waste and Create Wealth in Your Corporation, Touchstone & Design, New York, Ch 2.

 

44. This has been given names such as 'reducing our negative impact on the environment' by a Factor of 4 (a 75 per cent reduction in resource intensity) or a Factor of 10 (a 90 per cent reduction in resource intensity). In short we need to 'do more, with less for longer'.

 

45. Weaver, P., Jansen, J., van Grootveld, G., van Spiegel, E. and Vergragt, P. (2000) Sustainable Technology Development, Greenleaf Publishing, Sheffield, UK.

 

46. Benyus, J. (1997) Biomimicry: Innovations Inspired by Nature, William Morrow, New York.

 

47. When intelligent engineering and design is brought into play, big resource savings often cost even less up front than small or incremental resource savings. Whole systems engineering allows companies to tunnel through the cost barrier and achieve multiple benefits. Chapter 6 of the book Natural Capitalism: The Next Industrial Revolution has numerous case studies of this.

 

48. von Weizsäcker, E., Lovins, A. and Lovins, L. H. (1997) Factor Four: Doubling Wealth, Halving Resource Use, Earthscan, London.

 

49. Pigou, A. (1932) The Economics of Welfare, 4th Edition, Macmillan, London.

 

50. Jones, A. (1974) The Roman Economy: Studies in Ancient Economic and Administrative History, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, pp116, 127; Hammond, M. (1946) 'Economic Stagnation in the Early Roman Empire', Journal of Economic History, Supplement vol 6, pp75-76; For an introductory book on the subject that provides an overview of many of the issues relating to energy discussed in this book see Rifkin, J. (2002) The Hydrogen Economy, Tarcher/Putnam, New York City.

 

51. This material was drawn from the United Nations Environment Programme Press Release, 'Impact of climate change to cost the world US$300 billion a year'.

 

52. Refer to the CSIRO Ecosystem Services Project. (Publications from the Australian Productivity Commission include: Creating Markets for Ecosystem Services, 19 June 2002, Harnessing Private Sector Conservation of Biodiversity, Creating Markets for Biodiversity: A Case Study of Earth Sanctuaries Ltd Constraints on Private Conservation of Biodiversity, Cost Sharing for Biodiversity Conservation: A Conceptual Framework.)

 

53. Costanza, R., d'Arge, R., de Groot, R., Farber, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B., Limburg, K., Naeem, S., O'Neill, R. and Paruelo, J. (1997) 'The Value of the World's Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital', Nature, 387, 15 May, pp253-260.

 

54. WBCSD (World Business Council for Sustainable Development) (1992) Changing Course: A Global Perspective on Development and the Environment, MIT Press, Boston.

 

55. Daily, G. and Ellison, K. (2003) The New Economy of Nature, Stanford University.

 

56. Ehrenberg, R. (2003) 'Rapidly Multiplying Invasive Species Pose Host of Dangers to US', The Dallas Morning News, Friday, 19 December.

 

57. Every product we buy, every service we use, has an impact on the planet, otherwise known as an environmental load. This can be measured by measuring a product's ecological footprint. How large that ecological footprint is depends on the amount of energy and materials needed to make, transport, package, market and approve it. All products have this 'secret life' that most of us never consider.

 

58. Lovins, A. (2004) 'Energy Efficiency, Taxonomic Overview for Earth's Energy Balance', in Cleveland, C. J. (ed) Encyclopedia of Energy, Volume 1, Elsevier.

 

59. Ibid, pp20-21.

 

60. World Commission on Dams (2000) Dams and Development: A New Framework for Decision-making, The Report of the World Commission on Dams, Earthscan, London.

 

61. The International Rivers Network (IRN) has developed a booklet providing background on the formation of the WCD, a detailed summary of the WCD's findings and recommendations, and responses from NGOs, institutions and governments to the report.

 

62. Sutton, P. (2000) 'Is it Possible for a Green Economy to have High Economic Performance?' Green Innovations, Melbourne (www.green-innovations.asn.au/econ-mdl.htm).

 

63. Wilson , A., Uncapher, J., McManigal, L., Lovins, L. H., Cureton, M. and Browning, W. (1998) Green Development: Integrating Ecology and Real Estate, Rocky Mountain Institute/John Wiley & Sons.

 

64. Newsweek Special Issue, 37, 'Boom Towns: Is Asia's Urban Explosion a Blessing or a Curse?'.

 

65. The World Federation of Engineering Organisations (WFEO) has identified megacities as a major area of concern for the future.

 

66. World Bank (2003) World Bank Development Report 2003: Sustainable Development in a Dynamic World, Oxford University Press, Oxford, Ch 6.

 

67. Newman, P. and Kenworthy, J. (1999) Sustainability and Cities, Island Press, Washington, DC.

 

68. Kenworthy, J. (2003) Transport Energy Use and Greenhouse Gases in Urban Passenger Transport Systems: A Study of 84 Global Cities, as submitted to the International Sustainability Conference: Second Meeting of the Academic Forum of Regional Government for Sustainable Development 2003, Department of the Premier and Cabinet, Perth.

 

69. Refer to Chapter 19 of this publication on Sustainable Urban Transport, based on the findings of a study of Newman, P. and Kenworthy, J. (1999) Sustainability and Cities, Island Press, Washington, DC.

 

70. Kenworthy, J.and Laube.F (2001) 'The Millennium Cities Database for Sustainable Transport', Soziale Technik 4, pp17-18.

 

71. Newman, P. and Kenworthy, J. (1999) Sustainability and Cities, Island Press, Washington, DC.

 

72. Lovins, A., Datta, E. K. and others (2004) Winning the Oil Endgame: Innovation for Profits, Jobs, and Security, Rocky Mountain Institute, Colorado/Earthscan, London.

 

73. Fairbanks, M. and Lindsay, S. (1997) Plowing the Sea: Nurturing the Hidden Sources of Growth in the Developing World, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, Ch's 1-7 (with a Foreword by Michael E. Porter).

 

74. Cited in Roodman, D. (1999) The Natural Wealth of Nations: Harnessing the Market and the Environment, Worldwatch Environment Alert Series, WW Norton, New York/Earthscan, London, p55.

 

75. Roodman, D. (1999) The Natural Wealth of Nations: Harnessing the Market and the Environment, Worldwatch Environment Alert Series, WW Norton, New York/Earthscan, London, p54.

 

76. Sheehy, B. and Dickie, P. (2002) 'Facing the Future', Australian submission to the Report of the Mining Minerals and Sustainable Development (MMSD) Project Breaking New Ground, MMSD/Earthscan, London.

 

77. Romer, P. (1994) 'From Beyond Classical and Keynesian Macroeconomic Policy', Policy Options, July-August.

 

78. Romer, P. (1993) 'Economic Growth', in Henderson, D. R. (ed) The Fortune Encyclopedia of Economics, Warner Books.

 

79. McMichael, A. (2002) 'The Biosphere, Human Health and Sustainability', Science, vol 297, p1063; McMichael, T. (2001) Human Frontiers, Environments and Disease: Past Patterns, Uncertain Futures, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; IPCC (2001a) Climate Change 2000, IPCC, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Ch 5.

 

80. Lovins, A. and Lovins, L. H. (1982) Brittle Power, Brick House.

 

81. Klare, M. (2001) Resource Wars: The New Landscape of Global Conflict, Henry Holt Books, New York.

 

82. Robinson, B. (2002) Global Oil Vulnerability and the Australian Situation, Issues and Background Paper for the Western Australia State Sustainability Strategy, Government of Western Australia.

 

83. Government of Western Australia (2002) Focus on the Future: The Western Australian State Sustainability Strategy: Consultation Draft, Department of the Premier and Cabinet, Perth, p198.