The Natural Edge Project The Natural Advantage of Nations Whole System Design Factor 5 Cents and Sustainability Higher Education and Sustainable Development




"Hargroves and Smith (The Natural Advantage of Nations) make a clear business case for the Triple Bottom Line-optimizing economic, social and ecological value for the enterprise. Through theory and case studies, they show that any size company in any industry can 'pick off the low hanging fruit' of easy cost savings to invest in adaptations and innovations for the long term."
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The Natural Advantage of Nations (Vol. I): Business Opportunities, Innovation and Governance in the 21st Century

 
 

Section 4: Sustainable Cities - the Challenge of the 21st Century

1 Economic impacts of transport choices are significant
1.1 Methodology of the Millennium Cities Database
1.2 Characteristics of urban transport systems
1.3 Sustainable transport systems
1.4 The importance of urban form
1.5 Sustainable urban development
1.6 Designing around the mind: understanding behaviour
1.7 Civil society and business
2 Reference List from the Book
Sample of Resources to Support Chapter 19
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Related Papers from Jeff Kenworthy

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Related Papers from Craig Townsend
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Inspiring Case Studies of Sustainable Urban Transport around the World
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Online Databases and Resources
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Sustainable Urban Transport Organisations
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Sustainable Urban Transport Further Reading
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View Further Reading for this Chapter

 

This chapter was co-authored by Jeff Kenworthy, Associate Professor for Sustainable Settlements, Institute for Sustainability and Technology Policy, Murdoch University, Western Australia; Robert Murray-Leach, Environmental Officer, South Australian State Government; and Dr Craig Townsend, Planning and Transport Research Centre, Perth, Western Australia.

Jeff Kenworthy

Associate Professor in Sustainable Settlements,

Institute for Sustainability and Technology Policy

Murdoch University, Western Australia

Related papers from Jeff Kenworthy

 

Dr. Craig Townsend
Assistant Professor, Concordia University

Department of Geography, Planning and Environment

Related papers from Craig Townsend

(Extracts from book)

Travel is so seamlessly intertwined with the range of activities comprising our daily lives that it is difficult to step back and clearly assess how it influences our quality of life, economy, and environment. In recent decades, we have grown accustomed to traveling further, faster and more frequently. Transport has many aspects, including movement in urban and rural areas, movement of people and freight, and movement by land, air and water. This chapter focuses on the global transport sector which directly affects a large and growing proportion of the world's population on a daily basis: urban passenger transport. Over the last half of the 20th century, privately-owned and operated motor vehicles have increasingly dominated urban passenger transport systems in many countries. As part of a balanced transport system, cars and motorbikes can bring flexibility and convenience that enrich our lives. However, with the rapid growth in private vehicle use our transport systems have become increasingly imbalanced, resulting in the problems from private motor vehicle exceeding their benefits.

.The impacts of current motorized vehicles on air quality, human health and urban public spaces have been concerns for many decades now. In the 1990s 'sustainable urban transport' became a mainstream challenge to the notion that urban transport systems dominated by motor cars can be sustainable. In part this has been driven by the continued growth of car use in high-income cities, but also by the rapid growth in motor vehicle use in the large and growing cities of China, India, and South-east Asia. If these cities were to become as dependent on motor vehicles as many cities in Australia and North America, the global environmental consequences could potentially be extreme...

...It has been widely demonstrated how important urban form is in helping to explain the macropatterns of urban transportation, especially the level of auto-dependence and transport energy use. Urban density, a key characteristic or measure of urban form, is closely correlated with energy use. The Millennium Cities Database data suggest that car use, energy use and greenhouse gas production are positively correlated with each other while negatively correlated with population density. Higher car and energy use cities, and the highest greenhouse gas producers, are low in population density, while the higher density cities have lower car and energy use per person and lower transport greenhouse gases...

..While urban transport planning was once viewed as a solely technical activity to be executed by 'value-free' experts, it is now acknowledged that it is an inherently political activity because it influences the distribution of costs and benefits within societies. There are a number of questionable assumptions held by many policy-makers that challenge the introduction of sustainable transport. For example, it is widely asserted that promoting alternatives to car use will damage local car industries. This view is countered by the examples of Japan and Korea, which became major car manufacturing nations while exercising strong restraints on domestic car use. People who cycle to work are still likely to own cars for longer journeys, a fact that was recognized by Volkswagen when it included free bicycles with new cars in 1996. While planners working for the state may have certain designs or ideas for urban transport systems, civil society groups or private companies may circumvent or overturn the government planners. If state actions are not coordinated or congruent with the actions of communities (civil society) or businesses (the private sector) they will have little chance of success.

 

 

Related Papers from Jeff Kenworthy

 

Urban Design to Reduce Automobile Dependence (Peter Newman, Jeff Kenworthy) (paper submitted to Opolis: An International Journal of Suburban and Metropolitan Studies. Volume 2, Issue 1 2006, Article 3)

A major goal of urban design, especially in centers, is to reduce automobile dependence in order to address issues of viability and sustainability. Long-term data from cities around the world appear to show that there is a fundamental threshold of urban intensity (residents and jobs) of around 35 per hectare where automobile dependence is significantly reduced. This article seeks to determine a theoretical base for what the data show. It suggests that below the threshold intensity of urban activity, the physical constraints of distance and time enforce car use as the norm. The basis of these physical constraints is outlined and the link between density and access to services that provide amenity is established, including the service levels of public transport. A design technique for viability of centers is suggested as well as how a city can restructure itself to overcome automobile dependence.

View paper

 

Transport Energy Use and Greenhouse Gases in Urban Passenger Transport Systems: A Study of 84 Global Cities. (Kenworthy, J. (2003))

(Submitted to the International Sustainability Conference: Second Meeting of the Academic Forum of Regional Government for Sustainable Development 2003, Department of the Premier and Cabinet, Perth ) The transport sector will be very hard hit by the "big rollover" in world oil production due to occur within the next 10 years. Urban transport in particular is almost entirely dependent upon oil, and will take many years to shift to other energy sources. Most cities will be particularly vulnerable during the transition to a post-petroleum world. Likewise, the growing focus on global warming and greenhouse issues places additional pressure on urban transport to reduce its CO2 output. This paper provides a review of transport, urban form, energy use and CO2 emissions patterns in an international sample of 84 cities in the USA , Australia , Canada , Western Europe, high income Asia, Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Africa, low income Asia, Latin America and China .

View paper | View presentation

 

Transport and Urban Form in Chinese Cities: An International Comparative and Policy Perspective with Implications for Sustainable Urban Transport in China. (Kenworthy, J. and Hu, G. (2002)) (DISP [ Zurich ], vol 151, pp4-14.)

Chinese cities are acknowledged worldwide as being the leaders in non-motorised transport. Many other aspects of their transport and urban form are also conducive to low levels of automobile dependence. However, urban China is changing rapidly with very high rates of motorisation and a number of policies and factors that are pushing their transport systems towards greater reliance on cars and motor cycles. Development of quality public transport systems appears not to be keeping pace with the emphasis on private transport. This paper briefly explores how Chinese cities compared on key transport and urban form factors to a large sample of other cities from around the world in 1995. It further examines a range of important policies and factors that are shaping Chinese urban transport systems and explores the potential of Chinese cities to embrace the ideal of "sustainable urban transport", as opposed to increasing automobile dependence.

View paper

 

Transport and Urban Planning for the Post-Petroleum Era (Kenworthy, J.)

An overview paper on alternative sustainable transport planning, which outlines a four-step process for reducing transport energy use and 'confronting the post-petroleum world'. The paper concludes by noting that systematic solutions are required that integrate better technologies, better pricing and better urban and transport planning. The result of reducing transport systems' inherent energy dependence will have enormous positive impacts on the sustainability and livability of the city.

View paper

Can Rail Pay? Light Rail Transit and Urban Redevelopment with Value Capture Funding and Joint Development Mechanisms. Discussion Paper (Jan Scheurer, Peter Newman, Jeff Kenworthy with Thomas Gallagher)

View paper

Indicators of Transport Efficiency in 37 Global Cities (Peter Newman, Jeff Kenworthy, Felix Laube & Paul Barter) A report to the World Bank.

View website

 

Automobile Dependence: 'The Irresistible Force?' (Jeff Kenworthy & Peter Newman)

This paper critically examines the proposition that the automobile is unstoppable and presents data on US, Australian, European and Asian cities.

View website

 

Transport Energy Conservation Policies for Australian Cities: Strategies for Reducing Automobile Dependence (Peter Newman, Jeff Kenworthy & Tom Lyons)

This compendium of data and articles is compulsory reading for those interested in comparative studies of transport issues over the world.

View website

 

Melbourne in an International Comparison of Urban Transport

Systems: Marvellous or Mediocre (J. Kenworthy & P. Newman. Institute for Sustainability and Technology Policy, Murdoch University , 2002)

 

 

Related Papers from Craig Townsend

 

Kenworthy, Jeff and Townsend, Craig. (forthcoming) "A Comparative Perspective on Urban Transport and Emerging Environmental Problems in Middle Income Cities" , in McGranahan, Gordon et al. forthcoming. Scaling the Urban Environmental Challenge: From the local to the global and back, United Nations University Press: Tokyo.

 

Townsend, Craig. 2003. "Roads Before Rail: Development of Expressways and Mass Transit in Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur ", 9th WCTR Selected Proceedings, Elsevier Ltd.

 

Kenworthy, Jeff and Craig Townsend. 2002. "An International Comparative Perspective on Motorisation in Urban China : Problems and Prospects", IATSS Research, v. 26 n. 2. pp. 99-109.

 

Townsend, Craig. 2000. "Implications of Urban Transport Infrastructure Development", Asia ecoBest, August, v. 2 n. 4.

 

 

Inspiring Case Studies of Sustainable Urban Transport around the World

(extracted or adapted from The Natural Advantage of Nations, Chapter 19)

 

Pedestrianization of Guangzhou brings business

Guangzhou 's trial Beijing road pedestrian area was made permanent after proving popular with city residents, the district mayor, and the business community. Now every district is clamouring for their own pedestrian area to attract more business. The city hopes that this - along with measures to preserve several historical districts and the Jade Market - will help increase the average 'business tourist' stay from 1 to 2 days.

View website

 

Cycling leads to a Safer and Greener Netherlands

Safe footpaths and cycling networks are minimum requirements for a society that walks and cycles. In the Netherlands, where a strong commitment has been made to cycling infrastructure, 28 per cent of trips are made by bicycle. Pedestrian fatalities per billion km walked are less than a tenth as high as in the United States, and bicyclist fatalities per billion km cycled are only a fourth as high.

View PDF

 

Taj Mahal & Mizrapur Rickshaws reduce emissions and increase wealth

Some of the most innovative uses of non-motorized transport are occurring in lower-income cities. Air pollution around the Taj Mahal, in India, sparked a renaissance in cycle rickshaws. Local agencies and the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy designed modernized, lightweight rickshaws that have raised the status of this mode and increased the earnings of their drivers, with over 30,000 units now sold across India. In Mizrapur, cycle rickshaws are now used for part of the collection of street waste, lowering emissions, increasing hygiene and helping to beautify the city.

View website

 

Rapid Transit and Rapid Growth: Curitiba, Brazil

A truly remarkable and widely cited example of whole system engineering design in sustainable transport systems lies in Curitiba, Brazil. Dubbed the fastest growing city in Brazil, it remains one of the most livable in the continent due to its extremely effective transportation system. The system that mimicks an underground rail system, but is aboveground and at 500-fold less cost. Approximately 70 percent of all Curitibans use the bus system - the 'flat social fare' of 20 pence for unlimited transfers cover running costs of the whole system, hence is unsubsidised from government.

View pdf (case study in detail from Natural Capitalism, Chapter 14: Human Capitalism).

 

The Soul of Seoul: Tearing Down Freeways to Re-Build a City

As part of Seoul Mayor Lee Mung-Bak's plan to reduce the proportion of trips made by car from 27 per cent to 12 per cent between 2002 and 2006, the Cheonggyecheon Expressway will be replaced with a BRT system. The cornerstone of this dramatic new vision is the restoration of the Cheonggyecheon, an 84-meter wide river running through central Seoul 's Dongdaemun district. Once the center of a diverse urban landscape, the river was gradually polluted with a toxic mix of chemicals, then between 1958 and 1978, it was covered with concrete and the city built the Cheonggyecheon elevated highway over it. The highway cuts through the center of Seoul and has long diminished the quality of life for residents of South Korea 's capital city. The new development involves taking down the six-lane highway, decontaminating the Cheonggyecheon and creating a park and wide pedestrian corridor on the shores of the river in its place.

View website

 

The new development will see the removal of a six-lane freeway and restoration of the Cheonggyecheon river.

 

Urban Growth Boundaries Benefit Portland

Urban growth boundaries and focusing investment into existing communities are critical steps in ensuring that cities remain compact. If inner cities are left to decay, those who can afford to will flee to new development at the urban fringe in a continual vicious circle. Revitalizing neighbourhoods, on the other hand, has the potential to give everyone a chance to live in an attractive suburb. The City of Portland is often cited as a successful example of urban growth boundaries (UGB), as its UGB has been in place sufficiently long enough for its effects to emerge. While there has been debate over the affordability of housing in Portland, the city's policy matrix has seen greater urban redevelopment and infill accompanied by rapid economic growth and improved quality of life. Developers have started to accept limitations on building at 'greenfield' sites at the edge of cities, as they have become more familiar with sustainability principles and the success of 'New Urbanism' styles of developments.

View website

 

Hong Kong Integrates Urban Density for Multiple Benefits

Integrating increased urban density with provision for pedestrians and cyclists and improved public transport brings multiplied benefits. Bus interchanges and rail are particularly important in this process, as it also encourages land developers to build around stations, further increasing the local density and accessibility. It appears that a fixed rail system has this impact by offering developers security for their investments, combined with the quieter, cleaner surroundings, due to electric propulsion...In Hong Kong, developers of high rise housing and commercial buildings were given concessions to develop around stations. This has resulted in high-density, mixed use development which is highly accessible by public transport, such as Tsuen Wan metro terminal, which is pedestrian friendly and contains a bus interchange, shopping centre and offices.

View website

 

Calm traffic in Singapore

In many cities, enabling people to walk and cycle safely will entail 'traffic calming', which involves reducing the speed and volume of car traffic by narrowing or removing traffic lanes and changing the streetscape and the geometry of the road. In Singapore the incumbent government has been discouraging widespread car ownership and use through a number of highly coordinated measures. Singaporean citizens seeking to purchase cars must first bid for a limited number of 'Certificates of Entitlement' that allow them to buy a car, which is then heavily taxed.

View website

 

Transport Equity Act for the 21 st Century (TEA 21)

The US has developed a model for giving communities choice about transport issues. The US Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act and its successor, the Transport Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA 21) has since 1991 given local transport decisions to local planners. It requires consultation and preparation of overall transport plans considering pedestrians, cyclists and pollution implications. Proposals use alternative transport modes and link transport and land planning.

View website

 

The End of Urban Freeway (by Peter Newman)

In this article Peter Newman examines some of the trends in providing alternatives to the urban freeway in the UK, USA and Australia where there appears to be the acceptance that a new paradigm is emerging on how to build cities. The paper provides evidence through case studies that viable alternatives exist (and are well demonstrated in European and Asian cities) to steer cities away from the development of economically and morally controversial freeways.

View PDF

 

 

Online Databases and Resources

 

Millennium Cities Database for Sustainable Transport

The International Association of Public Transport (UITP) has compiled a database of 100 of the world's cities, known as the "Millennium Cities Database for Sustainable Transport", in collaboration with Dr Jeff Kenworthy and Felix Laube of Murdoch University, Australia. The collected data looks at population, the economy and urban structure, the number of road vehicles, taxis, the road network, parking, public transport networks (offer, usage and cost), individual mobility and choice of transport mode, transport system efficiency and environmental impact (duration and cost of transport, energy consumption, accidents, pollution, etc.). In total, over 200 indicators have been collected for each of the 100 cities for the year 1995.

View Website

 

Australian Federal Government Inquiry into sustainable cities

On 8 August 2003 the Minister for Environment and Heritage announced that the committee is to inquire into the development of sustainable cities. The Inquiry focuses on seven visionary objectives, one of which is "the development of sustainable transport networks, nodal complementarity and logistics".

View the discussion paper (PDF 92KB) or (RTF 176KB)
Schedule of public hearings (and transcripts)
Sustainable Cities Report

 

Transit Australia Journal

The Transit Australia Journal follows developments in the urban passenger transport industry across Australia and New Zealand. Published monthly by Transit Australia Publishing, journal considers all modes of urban passenger transport: both heavy and light rail, ferry and bus, as well as occasional feature articles focusing on information, fares and ticketing, new technologies, accessibility and some of the political and environmental aspects of urban passenger transport; all considered within the context of the relationship between land use planning and transport.

View website

 

The New Jersey Smart Growth Gateway

The New Jersey Smart Growth Gateway provides access to information and resources on matters relating to smart growth, sustainable development, and environmental protection. Though directly relevant to the New Jersey area, the gateway is a useful resource for learning more about 'Smart Growth', the range of sustainable development solutions the concept entails, case studies of Smart Growth applied and examples of regulations used, and computer tools and data for implementing and monitoring Smart Growth.

View website

 

 

 

Sustainable Urban Transport Related Organisations

 

International Association of Public Transport (UITP)

International Association of Public Transport (UITP) represents over 2700 urban, local, regional and national mobility and public transport professionals from more than 90 countries in all continents. UITP is a primary advocate and promoter of public transport, acting as a knowledge hub for the provision of transport statistics and mobility indicators, current developments and future trends, and case studies of best practice for the public transport sector. UITP covers all modes of public transport - metro, bus, light rail, regional and suburban railways, and waterborne transport. It also represents collective transport in a broader sense (such as car-sharing). In addition, UITP is currently further expanding its presence on the mobility market, including the taxi sector.

View website and the UITP's complete list of publications .

 

Institution of Engineers Australia . Sustainable Transport - Responding to the Challenges (Sustainable Energy Transport Task Force Report, November 1999)

The Sustainable Energy Transport Task Force of the Institution of Engineers, Australia has produced a report entitled "Sustainable Transport - Responding to the Challenges". The Task Force was convened to consider the role that transport might play in contributing to a more sustainable energy culture in Australia. The Task Force focused on what are considered to be the most critical policy issues or key elements in a sustainable transport framework and developed a series of recommendations for future action.

View Summary | View Full Report

 

Australian Productivity Commission. Progress in Rail Reform - Inquiry Report (August, 1999)

The Australian Productivity Commission was asked to report on progress in rail reform. The inquiry covered freight and passenger rail systems and urban, intrastate and interstate rail operations. The inquiry was required to identify reforms already made within the rail industry and to identify any further initiatives which may be beneficial. Specifically, the report provides detail on the existing structure of the rail industry in Australia, the strengths and weaknesses of the Australian rail industry, and implementation strategies for measures to remove barriers to improved efficiency and performance of the industry.

Access Full Report

 

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO)

CSIRO is engaged in a number of research projects focused on improving the efficiency and performance of Australia 's transport systems.

View website

 

Institute for Sustainability and Technology Policy (ISTP)

The ISTP under Peter Newman and Jeff Kenworthy is conducting sustainable transport-related research under the Sustainable Settlements program. The ISTP has research expertise in introducing concepts of New Urbanist Designs into local government and integrating public transport, having provided significant contribution to the development of case studies for the widely recognised

Western Australian State Sustainability Strategy.| View website

 

Sustainable Urban Transport Project - Asia (SUTP)

Access to opportunities is diminishing in many developing cities due to a deteriorating transport environment. Policy-makers are facing demands to meet the changing mobility needs of citizens in ways which are economically, socially and environmentally sustainable. SUTP-Asia is a partnership between the German Technical Cooperation (GTZ), the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA, CITYNET and the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) which aims to help developing world cities achieve their sustainable transport goals, through the dissemination of information about international experience and targeted work with particular cities. The SUTP project has released a training course document on Public Awareness and Behaviour Change.

View website

 

World Business Council for Sustainable Development - Mobility 2030 Report

The report, Mobility 2030 summaries the outcomes of the collective efforts of more than 200 experts from a broad set of 12 industrial companies who have taken part in the WBCSD's Sustainable Mobility Project's committees and work streams. Concentrating on road transportation, Mobility 2030 shows how sustainable mobility might be achieved and how progress towards it could be measured.

View Executive Summary | View Full Report and Website

 

TAPESTRY

Travel Awareness, Publicity and Education Supporting a Sustainable Transport Strategy in Europe (TAPESTRY) is a research and demonstration project funded by the European Commission (DG Energy and Transport) under the 5th RTD Framework Programme. The project brings together 25 partners from 12 European countries, ranging from local authorities and local public transport operators to national research agencies and leading researchers in the field of travel behaviour.

View website

 

Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (ITDP) - Bus Rapid Transit Program

The ITDP was founded in 1985 to promote environmentally sustainable and equitable transportation policies and projects worldwide. ITDP programs include bus rapid transit, congestion pricing, pedestrianization, bicycle and pedestrian planning, brownfield revitalization, bicycle and cycle rickshaw modernization, the development of buyers' cooperatives among independent bicycle dealers, and emerging work in health service delivery logistics.

View website

 

Surface Transport Policy Project (STPP)

The Surface Transport Policy Project (STPP) is a non-profit organization working to ensure a diversified transportation system. STPP is funded by individual donations and a range of national/regional foundations including the Agua Foundation, the Fannie Mae Foundation, the Ford Foundation, the Heinz Foundation, the Hewlett Foundation, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the Joyce Foundation, the James Irvine Foundation, the David & Lucille Packard Foundation, and the Rockefeller Foundation.

View website

 

Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI)

RMI consults on a variety of sustainable transportation projects including improving public transportation, and developing alternatives to actual transportation through community design and concepts such as Smart Growth strategy.

View website

 

Wuppertal Institute

The Wuppertal Institute's Research Group " Future Energy and Mobility Structures " investigates questions of systems and infrastructure, with a focus on future energy and mobility structures. It explores paths of transformation (technologies, infrastructures) and the related implications and chances. The Future Energy and Mobility Structures research group focuses on sustainable transportation projects related to 'New energy carriers and fuels' and 'Energy- and transport-saving spatial patterns'.

View website

 

Bikeability Toolkit

The Bikeability Toolkit includes checklists and resource materials that will help design physical and social environments to encourage cycling. The resource materials include references, guidelines and other resources to assist in the implementation of local bikeability audits and actions. This toolkit was prepared by the Bicycle Federation of Australia (BFA) for the Australian Greenhouse Office in the Department of the Environment and Heritage, with the endorsement of the Australian Bicycle Council.

View website

 

 

 

Further Reading

 

Hawken, P. Lovins, A. Lovins L. (1999) Natural Capitalism (Earthscan, London). Chapter 2: Reinventing the Wheels. Chapter freely downloadable from http://www.natcap.org/images/other/NCchapter2.pdf.

 

Newman, P.G. Kenworthy, J. ( 1990) Cities and Automobile Dependence: A Sourcebook (Ashgate Pub Co).

 

Newman, P. Kenworthy, J. (1999) Sustainability and Cities. (Island Press, Washington, DC.)

 

von Weizsacker, E. Lovins, A.B. Lovins, L.H. (1997) Factor 4: Doubling Wealth, Halving Resource Use (Earthscan, London).

 

Wright, L. (2002) Sustainable Transport: A Sourcebook for Policy-makers in Developing Countries. (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit, Eschborn).

 

 

References from the Book

1 Extract from an interview on Australian Radio National Earthbeat with Alexandra de Blas, Saturday 12 September 1998.

 

2 Newman, P. and Kenworthy, J. (1999) Sustainability and Cities, Island Press, Washington, DC .

 

3 Campbell, C. (1997) The Coming Oil Crisis, Multi-Science Publishing, Brentwood.

 

4 AAA (Australian Automobile Association) (2000) Motoring Clubs Combine to Call for Freeze and Reform of Fuel Tax, AAA (online), 30 October.

 

5 Laird, P., Newman, P., Bachels, M. and Kenworthy, J. (2001) Back on Track: Rethinking Transport Policy in Australia and New Zealand, UNSW Press, Sydney.

 

6 The database contains data on 69 primary variables which, depending on the city and the administrative complexity and multi-modality of its public transport system, can mean up to 175 primary data entries. The methodology of data collection for all the factors was strictly controlled by agreed upon definitions contained in a technical booklet of over 100 pages and data was carefully checked and verified by three parties before being accepted into the database. From this complex range of primary factors, some 230 standardized variables have been calculated. Cities can thus be compared across the areas of urban form, private and public transport performance, overall mobility and modal split, private and public transport infrastructure, the economics of urban transport (operating and investment costs, revenues), passenger transport energy use and environmental factors, including CO2 emissions. More detail about the database can be found in Kenworthy, J.and Laube.F (2001) 'The Millennium Cities Database for Sustainable Transport', Soziale Technik 4, pp17-18.

 

7 Lave, C. (1992) 'Cars and Demographics', Access, 1, pp4-11; Kirwan, R. (1992) 'Urban Form, Energy and Transport: A Note on the Newman-Kenworthy Thesis', -Urban Policy and Research, vol 10, no 1, pp6-23.

 

8 Refer to the tabulated data in Tables 2 and 4 contained in the source paper Kenworthy, J. (2003) Transport Energy Use and Greenhouse Gases in Urban Passenger Transport Systems: A Study of 84 Global Cities, as submitted to the International Sustainability Conference: Second Meeting of the Academic Forum of Regional Government for Sustainable Development 2003, Department of the Premier and Cabinet, Perth .

 

9 Peden, M., McGee, K. and Krug, E. (eds) (2002) Injury: A Leading Cause of the Global Burden of Disease, World Health Organisation, Geneva .

 

10 Stephenson, J., Bauman, A., Armstrong, T., Smith, B. and Bellew, B. (2000) The Cost of Illness Attributable to Physical Inactivity in Australia : A preliminary study, Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care and the Australian Sports Commission, Canberra .

 

11 AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) (2003) Australia 's Young People: Their Health and Wellbeing, Cat No PHE 50, AIHW, Canberra .

 

12 ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics) (2000) Household Expenditure Survey Australia : Detailed Expenditure Items, Cat No 6530, ABS, Canberra.

 

13 Sustainable Development Information Service: Global Trends, Proceed with Caution: Growth of Global Motor Fleet, World Resources Institute.

 

14 Benkhelifa, F., Cu, T. and Truong, N. (2001) Air Pollution and Traffic in Ho Chi Minh City: The ETAP Approach, Transport Planning, Demand Management and Air Quality, Manila, Philippines , 26-27 February.

 

15 Kemp, D. (2002) National Pollution Inventory, 2001-02, Press Release, Australian Government.

 

16 WBCSD (2001c) Sustainable Mobility Project, WBCSD, Geneva.

 

17 WHO (World Health Organisation) (2000) Fact Sheet No 187: Air Pollution, Fact Sheets, WHO.

 

18 For more information on the latest developments in China see Kenworthy, J. and Hu, G. (2002) Transport and Urban Form in Chinese Cities: An International Comparative and Policy Perspective with Implications for Sustainable Urban Transport in China , DISP [Zurich ], vol 151, pp4-14.

 

19 Pucher, J. and Dijkstra, L. (2000) 'Making Walking and Cycling Safer, Lessons from Europe ', Transportation Quarterly, vol 54, no 3, pp25-50.

 

20 Transport SA (2002) Adelaide Travel Patterns: An Overview, Research Summary TP-02/8, Government of South Australia, Adelaide .

 

21 Hass-Klau, C. (1993) 'Impact of Pedestrianization and Traffic Calming on Retailing: A Review of the Evidence from Germany and the UK ', Transportation Policy, vol 1, no 1, pp21-31.

 

22 ITDP (Institute for Transportation and Development Policy) (2002) Guangzhou Makes Pedestrian Area Permanent, Sustainable Transport E-update, ITDP, May-June.

 

23 Road and Traffic Authority (1999) Action for Bikes: Bike Plan 2010, NSW Government, Sydney.

 

24 ITDP (Institute for Transportation and Development Policy) (2002) Guangzhou Makes Pedestrian Area Permanent, Sustainable Transport E-update, ITDP, May-June.

 

25 UN-HABITAT (United Nations Human Settlements Programme) (2002) Best-practices Database, UN-HABITAT, Nairobi .

 

26 Singh, S. (2004) ' Delhi Metro Blazes a Trail of Profit', India Times, 4 February.

 

27 Wright, L. (2002) Sustainable Transport: A Sourcebook for Policy-makers in Developing Countries: Module 3b Bus Rapid Transport, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit, Eschborn.

 

28 ITDP (2003a) International Bus Rapid Transit Program, ITDP. Available online.

 

29 ITDP (2003b) Seoul to Raze Elevated Freeway, Giving Way to Revitalized City Center, Sustainable Transport E-update, ITDP, May.

 

30 WBCSD (2001c) Sustainable Mobility Project, WBCSD, Geneva .

 

31 Newman, P. and Kenworthy, J. (1999) Sustainability and Cities, Island Press, Washington, DC; Kenworthy, J. and Laube, F. (1999) An International Sourcebook of Automobile Dependence in Cities, 1960-1990, University Press of Colorado, Colorado; Cervero, R. (1998) The Transit Metropolis, Island Press, Washington, DC.

 

32 Refer to the tabulated data in Tables 2 and 5 contained in the source paper Kenworthy, J. (2003) Transport Energy Use and Greenhouse Gases in Urban Passenger Transport Systems: A Study of 84 Global Cities, as submitted to the International Sustainability Conference: Second Meeting of the Academic Forum of Regional Government for Sustainable Development 2003, Department of the Premier and Cabinet, Perth.

 

33 The New Jersey Smart Growth Gateway is an online resource to provide local government officials, civic leaders, and concerned citizens with the information necessary to begin implementing 'Smart Growth Strategies' in their communities.

 

34 Refer to the report written by the 1000 Friends of Oregon (1999) Myths & Facts About Oregon's Urban Growth Boundaries, available at www.friends.org/resources/myths.html.

 

35 Herlands, J. (1999) The Connection Between Growth Management and Local Economic Development, News and Views, American Planning Association Economic Development Division.

 

36 Refer to the Sierra Club campaign on Stopping Sprawl.

 

37 EPS (2000) Truckee Meadows Region: Facing the Future, Economic and Planning Systems Report No 9222, USA.

 

38 Breithaupt, M. (2001) Transport Demand Management: Towards an Integrated Approach to Reducing Pollution from Motor Vehicles, Transport Planning, Demand Management and Air Quality Seminar, Manila, Philippines, 26-27 February.

 

39 Lim Lan Yuan (1997) Case Study on Urban Transportation Development and Management in Singapore, Second International Expert Panel Meeting on Urban Infrastructure Development, Bangkok, Thailand, 8-9 December.

 

40 Kenworthy, J. (1991) 'The Land Use/Transit Connection in Toronto : Some Lessons for Australian Cities ', Australian Planner, vol 29, no 3, pp149-154.

 

41 Collaborative Economics (1998) Linking the New Economy to the Livable Community, The James Irvine Foundation, San Francisco .

 

42 Brog, V. and John, G. (2001) 'Individualised Marketing: The Perth Success Story', presented at the Conference of Marketing Public Transport: Challenges, Opportunities and Success Stories, Aotea Centre, Auckland , NZ, August.

 

43 Travel Awareness, Publicity and Education Supporting a Sustainable Transport Strategy in Europe (TAPESTRY) is a research and demonstration project funded by the European Commission (DG Energy and Transport) under the 5th RTD Framework Programme. The project brings together 25 partners from 12 European countries, ranging from local authorities and local public transport operators to national research agencies and leading researchers in the field of travel behaviour (www.eu-tapestry.org).

 

44 Transport For London (2003) Congestion Charging 6 Months On, Transport For London, London .

 

45 Kingham, S. and Donohoe, S. (2002) 'Children's Perception of Transport', World Transport Policy and Practice, vol 8, no 1, pp6-10.

 

46 Barter, P. (1999) An International Comparative Perspective on Urban Transport and Urban Form in Pacific Asia : The Challenge of Rapid Motorisation in Dense Cities, PhD, Murdoch University, Perth .

 

47 Warren Centre (2002) Community Values Research Report (Executive Summary), Sydney University Press, Sydney.

 

48 INRA Europe (1991) European Attitudes to Traffic Problems and Public Transport, Survey for ECE and UITP, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Brussels, July.

 

49 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act 1991; TEA-21: Transport Equity Act for the 21st century, 1998.

 

50 Rasagan, G. (1999) 'A "STEP" Towards Sustainable Transport: A Case Study of Penang, Malaysia', Transport and Communications Bulletin for Asia and the Pacific, vol 68, pp33-48.

 

51 Jacobson, B. and Aldana, S. (2001) 'Relationship Between Frequency of Aerobic Activity and Illness-Related Absenteeism in a Large Employee Sample', Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, December, vol 43, no 12, p1019.

 

52 SAVE (2000) Toolbox for Mobility Management in Companies, European Union, Brussels.

 

53 Manchester Airport Plc. is an example of one organization that has introduced an on-site crèche. For more information see the United Kingdom Department for Transport.

 

54 Pikora, T. and Miller, M. (2001) Promoting Active Transport: An Intervention Portfolio to Increase Physical Activity as a Means of Transport, National Public Health Partnership, Melbourne.

 

55 Warman, B. (2001) Cars: Where are They Taking Us? Charter Keck Crammer, Richmond, Victoria.