The Natural Edge Project The Natural Advantage of Nations Whole System Design Factor 5 Cents and Sustainability Higher Education and Sustainable Development




"Improving energy efficiency is essential in order to extend limited resources and reduce climate change. At least $1 Billion could be added to Australia’s GDP through identifying and implementing energy efficiency opportunities. It is very achievable, but we need people with practical energy efficiency training to see and grasp the opportunities. This online training program by TNEP is a comprehensive online resource to help business, government and households grasp these opportunities."
Geoff Andrews, Director, Genesis Auto, Australian Energy Efficiency Expert

"Engineers and designers will play a critical role in progress towards sustainability (A Sustainable Energy Future). But they will need to apply new techniques and approaches, and to work more closely with other disciplines. This Portfolio of resources will help engineers and designers to be part of the solution instead of part of the problem. It is an important step forward in engineering education."
Adjunct Professor Alan Pears, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology

 

"The work of the Natural Edge project makes me feel optimistic. This team of four young engineers with an extraordinary set of global networks has produced a three-part bible on how to reduce your emissions. It's enormous, but don't be put off by the size. It's designed so that you only need to read the chapters that relate to your business."
Alexandra De Blas, ABC Science Show

"It is vital that greenhouse gas reductions are reduced cost effectively. These lectures by TNEP show that significant energy efficiency opportunities exist in many common industrial automation and heating systems. These lectures also point to the significant potential for heat recovery and co-generation for many industries, and provide industry with a solid resource to help them start identifying energy efficiency opportunities. I believe there will be great interest in these lectures as energy efficiency is the most cost effective way for industry to reduce greenhouse gas emissions quickly, with little cost to existing processes."
Dr Glenn Platt, Group Leader of Demand Side Energy Systems, CSIRO Division of Energy Technology

"The latest climate science from the IPCC shows that to avoid dangerous climate change, significant and rapid reductions in greenhouse gas emissions will be needed. The online Sustainable Energy Solutions Portfolio by The Natural Edge Project, in partnership with Griffith Uni and ANU, will help ensure all engineers and built environment professionals can rapidly update their skills and knowledge on renewable energy and energy efficiency practice. This Portfolio will also help many universities update their courses and also act as a good online learning companion for existing university courses in Sustainable Energy."
Dr Mike Dennis, ANU Engineering Department, Research Fellow


 

"The InterContinental Hotels Group (IHG), with over 3,700 hotels worldwide, understands its responsibility to respect the environment and manage its impacts for the benefit of the communities in which it operates. The IHG CEO, Andy Cosslett has acknowledged that “Climate change is one of the biggest challenges facing the world today and how we respond will shape the lives of future generations.” An essential component of implementing sound environmental practices is to provide relevant training and resources. The CSIRO Energy Transformed and National Framework for Energy Efficiency funded Sustainable Energy Solutions Portfolio by The Natural Edge Project provides a valuable resource for hotels owners and operators to better understand the climate change issues and how hotels can exhibit their commitment to achieving greater energy efficiency."
Frank Hubbard, Director of Sustainability, InterContinental Hotels Group Australia/New Zealand/South Pacific

 

"The purpose of this statement is to express my appreciation to the CSIRO and the National Framework for Energy Efficiency for funding the creation of a series lectures on sustainable development prepared by The Natural Edge Project. In early 2007, I attended a The Natural Edge Project Research Director Michael Smith's seminar "Engineering Education for Sustainable Development" at the ANU Department of Engineering. I was impressed that the material was available under a Creative Commons License and so available freely for use. I was sceptical as to if hard headed engineers would be comfortable with the environmental idealism reflected in some of the content. Since that time environmental issues such as climate change have become a mainstream issue. The draft ICT lecture for TNEP’s Engineering Sustainable Solutions Portfolio, which myself and the Academic Principal of ACS's Computer Professional Education Program Dr David Lindley have reviewed, will make a very useful contribution to the education of ICT professionals, both in Australia and world wide. The ACS is currently working with the IT professional bodies of other nations on common world standards for education. Sustainable development is an area which is likely to be a priority and one where CSIRO, NFEE and TNEP will have made a valuable contribution."
Tom Worthington, Director, Australian Computer Society Professional Development Board


 

"Overall I think your lectures are excellent and will serve a vital purpose in conveying the principles of energy efficiency to IT practitioners."
Dr David Lindley, Academic Principal, ACSEducation, Australian Computer Society

  "Wow! What a toure de force!! Congratulations on such an important production. Practical advice, easily accessed on a mass of detailed themes. This is a resource like a dictionary or thesaurus - to be kept handy by planners, designers, engineers and all environmentally concerned professionals."
Emeritus Professor Valerie Brown, Australian National University




The Engineering Sustainable Solutions Program

Sustainable Energy Solutions Portfolio

 

Funding for the development of the' Energy Transformed: Sustainable Energy Solutions' online education program has been provided by the CSIRO Energy Transformed Flagship and is supported by the National Framework for Energy Efficiency.

   
 

Energy Transformed: Sustainable Energy Solutions for Climate Change Mitigation

This 600+ page online education program provides free access to a comprehensive education and training package that brings together the knowledge of how countries, specifically Australia, can achieve at least 60 percent cuts to greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. This resource has been developed in line with the activities of the CSIRO Energy Transformed Flagship research program which is focused on research that will assist Australia to achieve this target. This training package provides industry, governments, business and households with the knowledge they need to realise at least 30 percent energy efficiency savings in the short term while providing a strong basis for further improvement. It also provides an updated overview of advances in low carbon technologies, renewable energy and sustainable transport to help achieve a sustainable energy future. Whist this education and training package has an Australian focus, it outlines sustainable energy strategies and provide links to numerous online reports which will assist climate change mitigation efforts globally. This training program seeks to compliment other initiatives seeking to encourage the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through behaviour change, sustainable consumption, and constructive changes in economic incentives and policy.

The Natural Edge Project’s online resource is a comprehensive resource to assist and empower people globally to play their part to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. I highly recommend it for the university sector and for professional groups such as engineers and architects who have a key role to play in helping business and government to reduce their emissions.

Dr Rajendra Pachauri, Director General of the Energy and Research Institute, Delhi, Chief of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Co-recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize

Citation: Smith, M., Hargroves, K., Stasinopoulos, P., Stephens, R., Desha, C. and Hargroves, S. (2007) Energy Transformed: Sustainable Energy Solutions for Climate Change Mitigation, The Natural Edge Project, CSIRO, and Griffith University, Australia.

The Energy Transformed: Sustainable Energy Solutions for Climate Change Mitigation online education program is being promoted by respected institutions, media outets and information clearinghouses like the Engineers Australia Environmental College, CSIRO, The National Business Leaders Forum on Sustainable Development (Forum Papers), the ABC Science Show, Your Building, Teach Sustainability, TakingITGlobal and Sustainable Melbourne.

Read the results of a National survey of energy efficiency education across Australian universities teaching engineering education, funded by the National Framework for Energy Efficiency. The survey asked the question, ‘What is the state of education for energy efficiency in Australian engineering education?’. There was an excellent response to the survey, with 48 course responses from lecturers across 27 universities from every state and territory in Australia, and 260 student responses from 18 courses across 8 universities from all 6 states.

 

Module A: Understanding, Identifying and Implementing Energy Efficiency Opportunities for Industrial/Commercial Users – By Technology

Chapter 1: Climate Change Mitigation in Australia 's Energy Sector

The aim of this lecture is to provide an overview of the challenges and exciting opportunities facing Australia’s energy future. A clear understanding of these opportunities and risks will assist understanding of the range of interacting drivers for change within Australia’s energy sector. This lecture also provides an overview of energy efficiency and low carbon technology opportunities for Australia (to be covered in more detail throughout the three modules). This lecture will highlight that collectively the technologies and design strategies currently available can help Australia to achieve significant reductions in the emissions of greenhouse gases by 2050.

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The aim of this lecture is to demonstrate the business and economic case for action on climate change. Engineers and designers often need to convince business managers of the cost benefits of developing and implementing strategies to reduce energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions. It is important to be aware of the competitive advantage benefits to their organisation of taking a pro-active stance on climate change. Business, government and other organisations are now committing to achieve significant greenhouse gas reductions like never before. This lecture will show that through energy efficiency, low carbon technology strategies, and carbon offsets, many companies and governments have achieved significant greenhouse gas reductions and cost savings.

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The aim of this lecture is to overview the benefits of implementing energy efficiency strategies to business and the Australian economy (which is the focus of Modules 1 and 2 of this portfolio). This lecture outlines how applying a Whole System Approach to identifying energy efficiency opportunities can help to realise larger energy efficiency savings than has been achieved in the past. A Whole System Approach can help to achieve 80 percent (Factor 5) or greater energy-efficiency savings in new designs. This lecture emphasises the value of engineering, architect and design teams working together to undertake integrated front-loaded design to identify energy efficiency opportunities for new designs at the start of the project.

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The most cost effective way to help Australia rapidly progress to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) recommended greenhouse gas reduction targets is to identify and implement energy efficiency savings. This lecture provides business, industry and other organisations with a clear step by step process on identifying and implementing energy efficiency opportunities in existing and new systems, and there are now a wide range of online resources freely available to help achieve this.

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Chapter 2: Energy Efficiency Opportunities for Commercial Users

The aim of this lecture is to demonstrate that built environment design teams that adopt an integrated, front-loaded approach to design can create superior, more sustainable built environments. In particular, this lecture will assess the current demand for commercial green building design, and will explore the challenge this presents to practicing design professionals. This lecture will present case studies where the front-loaded design of commercial buildings has provided quantifiable benefits, including a reduction in energy consumption, resulting in reduced greenhouse gas emissions, reduced water consumption, improved comfort levels, and cost saving benefits.

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This lecture aims to review the energy efficiency opportunities in commercial buildings and covers key components of design, selection and operation of various resources and systems. In 2001 the Federal Government estimated that Australian commercial buildings produced 8.8 percent of the national greenhouse emissions. This lecture focuses on energy efficiency opportunities in lighting and embodied energy. Energy efficiency opportunities for HVAC systems are covered next in Lecture 2.3, and energy efficiency opportunities in office equipment are covered in detail in Lecture 5.3 on the IT Sector. A clear understanding of energy efficiency opportunities will assist engineers and other students of these modules to realise potential energy efficiency improvements in their commercial buildings.

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The Australian Greenhouse Office states that ‘Air-conditioning accounts for around half the total energy use of your buildings.’ While it is possible to design commercial buildings that reduce or eliminate the need for traditional mechanical HVAC systems (as shown in Lecture 2.1), most commercial buildings in Australia have mechanical HVAC systems. Hence this lecture reviews the energy efficiency opportunities in HVAC systems. In addition, many engineers and architects are expected to design HVAC systems into new buildings to meet specified requirements. This lecture addresses the question of how can more efficient HVAC systems be designed? This lecture also looks at seven ways to reduce the overall load required from HVAC systems. A clear understanding of energy efficiency opportunities will assist engineers and other students of these modules to realise potential energy efficiency improvements in HVAC systems. Since the study of HVAC systems is a large field, this lecture builds on and refers to significant existing online training resources.

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Chapter 3: Energy Efficiency Opportunities for Industrial Users

To review the energy efficiency opportunities in motors systems. Lecture 3.1 covers key components of design, operation and maintenance. A clear understanding of energy efficiency opportunities will assist engineers and other students of these modules to realise potential energy efficiency improvements in their motor and similar systems.

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The aim of this lecture is to cover the key components of design, operation and maintenance for boiler and steam distribution systems. A clear understanding of energy efficiency opportunities will assist engineers and other students of these modules to realise potential energy efficiency improvements in their boiler and similar systems.

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The aim of this lecture is to introduce key technological components and provide a high-level procedure for designing an efficient cogeneration system. A clear understanding of co-generation and technological components will assist engineers and other students of these modules to realise potential energy efficiency improvements in their facilities.

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Module B: Understanding, Identifying and Implementing Energy Efficiency Opportunities for Industrial/Commercial Users – By Sector

Chapter 4: Responding to Increasing Demand for Electricity

In the past many engineers have simply been asked to ensure that our societies can meet rising electricity and energy demand through building more supply infrastructure. Often decision makers have failed to ask the right questions, such as; why is electricity demand increasing so significantly? And can it be better managed? This lecture seeks to provide a base understanding of the related issues, through a consideration of the range of factors driving rising base and peak load electricity demand. Lectures 4.2-4.4 will explore a range of options to strategically respond to such factors of growth and deliver an effective combination of demand management and energy generation.
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Pursuing energy efficiency opportunities in the residential and commercial sectors is a strong strategy for Australia to reduce peak load electricity demands and the need for new energy supply and infrastructure while improving the quality of life for the majority of working Australians and their families (given that most Australians spend the majority of their lives in residential and commercial buildings). Lecture 4.1 showed that a rapid increase of electricity used for air-conditioning and heating plus lighting and refrigeration in the commercial and residential sector is what is driving rising peak electricity demand. Lecture 4.2 now addresses what can actually be done to reduce peak electricity demand.
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In Lecture 4.1 the question of what was driving increasing base load electricity demand was addressed. Over the last century in Australia electricity demand has doubled almost every 20 years. It will be impossible to achieve 60 percent reductions in greenhouse gas emissions if base load electricity demand continues like this. To achieve a 60 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, base load electricity demand, as well as peak electricity demand, needs to be reduced. The aim of this lecture is to communicate how best to do this. This lecture is heavily based on the research and papers of Adjunct Professor Alan Pears (with permission).
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The aim of this lecture is to introduce a deeper understanding of a key barrier to the uptake of energy efficiency; namely that Australian electricity utilities in all states and territories other than Qld and NSW are financially worse off if they help their customers become more energy efficient. This lecture seeks to outline how this is a driving force for increasing greenhouse gas emissions and escalating costs of electricity that undermines efforts in energy efficiency, demand management and low carbon technologies. This lecture shows that California and other states in the USA have proven that it is possible to create incentives to reward electricity utilities for helping their customers to use less electricity. This lecture shows that such regulatory changes can lead to dramatic changes in demand for electricity and thus significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions when initiated in conjunction with energy efficiency initiatives and peak and base load management. Finally, the lecture also provides a succinct overview of efforts to address this issue in Australia.
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Chapter 5: Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Large Energy Using Industry Sectors

The Aluminium, Steel and Cement Sectors are significant contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. Hence the educational aim for this lecture is to provide an overview of the energy efficiency opportunities in the aluminium, steel and cement sectors, and to provide access to the best online resources, outlining in detail the energy efficiency opportunities for each sector.
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Globally, the manufacturing sector contributes more than any other industry sector to global greenhouse gas emissions. Most studies suggest that China, which has the largest manufacturing sector in the world, either has already surpassed, or will surpass soon, the US as the largest greenhouse gas emitter. The three largest uses of energy in Australia are electricity generation (30.8 percent), transport (24.3 percent) and manufacturing processes (22.6 percent), which together account for some 75 percent of Australia’s energy consumption. Research by the National Framework for Energy Efficiency have found that for the Australian manufacturing sector there are, on average, 23 percent of energy efficiency opportunities with a four year or less pay back period, and up to 45 percent energy efficiency opportunities with an eight year or less pay back period. The aim of this lecture is to provide an overview of these opportunities and also provide detailed online energy efficiency opportunity resources for each part of the Australian manufacturing sector.
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The information and communication technology (ICT) sector significantly contributes to greenhouse gas emissions globally and in Australia. The aim of this lecture is to provide an overview of the energy efficiency opportunities in the ICT sector, and to provide access to the best online resources outlining the energy efficiency opportunities for the sector.
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Chapter 6: Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Light Industry and Commercial Sectors

The aim of this lecture is to explain why reducing greenhouse gas emissions is in the best interests of the Tourism and Hospitality Industry. This lecture will highlight the many opportunities for tourism and hospitality businesses to simultaneously reduce their impact on the environment, increase profit margins, create a stronger marketing image, and offer a more attractive workplace for staff and a better service to customers. These outcomes may be achieved by improving the energy efficiency of a business, particularly by ensuring the appropriate management and use of hot water, air-conditioning, lighting, catering facilities, leisure facilities, and by ensuring an appropriate building design.
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The aim of this lecture is to outline the financial benefits to be gained from seeking to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the food processing sector and major food retail (supermarket) outlets. This lecture overviews the many energy efficiency opportunities in the food processing and food retail industries and highlight where to find freely available online energy efficiency manuals and resources for the food processing sector.
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This lecture is adapted, with permission, from a comprehensive report on Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Fast Food Restaurants by Adjunct Professor Alan Pears funded by the NSW Sustainable Energy Development Authority. The fast food sector is a rapidly expanding sector in countries all over the world, and this lecture aims to show that through effective front-end design and retrofitting, energy efficiency savings of over 50 percent are possible in many fast food restaurants. This is the first comprehensive overview of energy efficiency opportunities in this sector to be made freely available online, value-adding to the best current online energy efficiency information portals such as the UK Carbon Trust.
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Module C: Integrated Approaches to Energy Efficiency and Low Emissions Electricity, Transport and Distributed Energy

Chapter 7: Integrated Approaches to Energy Efficiency and Low Emissions Electricity

The aim of this lecture is to overview a range of current technologies that can assist to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel electricity generation, and to demonstrate that significant reductions could be achieved in this sector. Since this is a very large topic, this lecture also seeks to provide students with an introduction to some of the most respected and comprehensive online publications in this field.
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The aim of this lecture is to outline how renewable energy can be very effective at helping business and the whole economy meet peak load demand, as renewable energy sources like co-generation, wind and solar produce the most amount of energy during peak load times of the day. This lecture also outlines a number of the hidden benefits of utilising small modular distributed energy systems, instead of large centralised systems, to meet variable peak load demand.
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The aim of this lecture is to provide an overview of the many ways that different forms of renewable energy can, individually and in combination, help to meet rising base load electricity demand and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This lecture also aims to provide an awareness of the diversity of ways renewables can contribute to meeting base load electricity demand, as well as giving an overview and context outlining the potential ways that renewable energy can contribute to help Australia achieve at least 60 percent reduction in 1990 levels of greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.
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The aim of this lecture is to compliment Lecture 7.3 by outlining how a seemingly intermittent energy source like wind power can, individually and in combination, help to meet rising base load electricity demand and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This lecture aims to ensure that students have an awareness of the diversity of ways renewables can contribute to meet base load electricity demand. To outline four of the main hidden benefits of utilising distributed energy supply options. This lecture also provides a further overview and context outlining the potential ways that renewable energy can contribute to help Australia achieve a 60 percent reduction in 1990 levels of greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.
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Chapter 8: Integrated Approaches to Energy Efficiency and Transport

Already oil production has peaked in over 60 countries, peaking in the US in 1972. Today the US currently uses 150 billion gallons of petrol per annum for transportation. If other nations burned gasoline at the same rate, world consumption would rise by a factor of 10. Most of the world’s remaining oil supplies exist in politically unstable regions of the globe. The aim of this lecture is to explain the current and projected world oil supply/demand situation and the likelihood of world oil production peaking in the near future. This lecture seeks to explain the implications of world oil production peaking, as well as providing an overview of the low carbon options now available to reduce oil usage. This lecture suggests there needs to be an integrated approach to addressing both the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and oil dependency.
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Using the best technologies on existing internal combustion engine vehicles can provide up to 25 percent energy efficiency gains, and that is a good start, but taking a whole system design approach to energy efficiency opportunities for transportation vehicles (cars, trucks, motorbikes, SUVs) can yield larger savings. This lecture introduces how taking a whole system approach to energy efficiency in the design of new transportation vehicles can achieve in excess of 50 percent overall energy efficiency improvement. This lecture demonstrates how these innovations open up options for new low carbon alternative fuels to be used in most types of transportation vehicles, and focuses on how such integrated approaches to energy efficiency and low carbon fuel options create the potential for still greater reductions in greenhouse gas emissions.
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Globally, trucking is one of the largest contributors to transportation emissions, and this is forecast to more than double over the next 50 years if business-as-usual continues. Transportation contributes 15 percent of Australia’s greenhouse gas emissions, and approximately 15 percent of road transportation emissions come from freight trucks. Greenhouse gas emissions from the trucking sector have risen in Australia by 47 percent between the years 1990 and 2005. The goal of this lecture is to outline ways that greenhouse gas emissions can be cost effectively reduced from the trucking sector.
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Chapter 9: Integrated Approaches to Energy Efficiency and Distributed Energy

This lecture shows in more detail the range of energy efficiency opportunities in the home. Greater efficiency of lighting and appliances can allow the domestic residential sector to meet their energy needs by using solar power and solar hot water systems. This lecture compliments the federal Government initiative that in 2007 will be sending pamphlets to all homes in Australia outlining the steps needed to become a climate-neutral home. The residential sector accounts for 20 percent of Australia’s greenhouse gas emissions and contribute disproportionately to the peak electricity demand in Australia. Achieving climate-neutral homes would help significantly to assist Australia as a whole to achieve 60 percent greenhouse gas reductions by 2050, which is the goal of the CSIRO Energy Transformed Flagship, supported by the recommendation of the Australian Business Roundtable on Climate Change.
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The aim of this lecture is to demonstrate the benefits of front-loaded design, and to demonstrate the opportunity for Australian built environment professionals to show leadership in sustainable designs. A case study of an exemplary Australian green building will be presented to demonstrate the extent of design innovation currently being achieved in Australia. The CSIRO Energy Centre showcases many of the innovative design solutions being used in Australia and demonstrates that integrated design solutions that are created via a front-loaded design process can result in near-climate neutral buildings, which can assist society to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce demand on centralised services, as well as finding solutions for pollution and waste issues.
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The aim of this lecture is to present current information about greenhouse gas (GHG) offset initiatives and opportunities. GHG offsets are beginning to be understood as key mechanisms that can be used to assist Australia to achieve at least 60 percent GHG emission reductions by 2050. This lecture will specifically cover issues and opportunities in forestry, soil, agricultural, and black soil offsetting initiatives.
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Acknowledgements
The Work was produced by The Natural Edge Project using funds provided by CSIRO and the National Framework for Energy Efficiency. The development of this publication has been supported by the contribution of non-staff related on-costs and administrative support by the Centre for Environment and Systems Research (CESR) at Griffith University, under the supervision of Professor Bofu Yu, and both the Fenner School of Environment and Society and Engineering Department at the Australian National University, under the supervision of Professor Stephen Dovers. The lead expert reviewers for the overall Work were: Adjunct Professor Alan Pears, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology; Geoff Andrews, Director, GenesisAuto; and Dr Mike Dennis, Australian National University.


Project Leader: Mr Karlson ‘Charlie’ Hargroves, TNEP Director
Principle Researcher: Mr Michael Smith, TNEP Research Director
TNEP Researchers: Mr Peter Stasinopoulos, Mrs Renee Stephens and Ms Cheryl Desha.
Copy Editor: Mrs Stacey Hargroves, TNEP Professional Editor
Graphics: Where original graphics have been enhanced for inclusion in the document this work has been carried out by Mrs Renee Stephens, Mr Peter Stasinopoulos and Mr Roger Dennis.

Peer Review Panel
Principal reviewers for the overall work were: Adjunct Professor Alan Pears – RMIT, Geoff Andrews – Director, Genesis Now Pty Ltd, Dr Mike Dennis – ANU, Engineering Department, Victoria Hart – Basset Engineering Consultants, Molly Olsen and Phillip Toyne - EcoFutures Pty Ltd, Glenn Platt – CSIRO, Energy Transformed Flagship, and Francis Barram – Bond University. The following persons provided peer review for specific lectures; Dr Barry Newell – Australian national University, Dr Chris Dunstan - Clean Energy Council, D van den Dool - Manager, Jamieson Foley Traffic & Transport Pty Ltd, Daniel Veryard - Sustainable Transport Expert, Dr David Lindley – Academic Principal, ACS Education, Frank Hubbard – International Hotels Group, Gavin Gilchrist – Director, BigSwitch Projects, Ian Dunlop - President, Australian Association for the Study of Peak Oil, Dr James McGregor – CSIRO, Energy Transformed Flagship, Jill Grant – Department of Industry Training and Resources, Commonwealth Government, Leonardo Ribon – RMIT Global Sustainability, Professor Mark Diesendorf – University of New South Wales, Melinda Watt - CRC for Sustainable Tourism, Dr Paul Compston - ANU AutoCRC, Dr Dominique Hes - University of Melbourne, Penny Prasad - Project Officer, UNEP Working Group for Cleaner Production, University of Queensland, Rob Gell – President, Greening Australia, Dr Tom Worthington - Director of the Professional Development Board, Australian Computer Society .